Jumat, 16 Oktober 2009

The Indonesian Human Development Index

Recently, exactly on Monday October 5th 2009, United Nation Development Programme (UNDP) published Human Development Report 2009. The Indonesian level was 111 among 182 countries in the world. It means that the level of Indonesia decreased again compared to that in 2007 i.e. 107/179 and in 2008 i.e. 109/179. Qualitatively, the Indonesian level increased a little i.e. 0.734 compared to that in 2007.

Mahbub ul Haq had formulated The Human Development Report before 1990. He defined that the objective of development is to create the environment which enables people to enjoy the life longer, healthily and creatively. This definition was based on paradigm that the human being is the centre of development. The Development should be directed to make people have access to public service easily as follows: to get science, to get better nutriment, to get health service, security, job, protection from security crime and physical violence, satisfaction of vacation, a freedom of culture and politics, and involvement in government.

Based on that concept, United Nation Development Programme (UNDP) has published Human Development Report for all countries in the world since 1990. Human Development Index (HDI) is one of tools to know the relevant growth of human development. HDI is important to measure society development. The counting of the human development index is based on three indicators as follows: (1) rate of long-life expectation and health, (2) rate of gaining education opportunity and (3) the quality of life rate that is indicated by reasonable standard i.e. buying capacity and income. The three indicators are summary of society welfare aspects. The scale of HDI ranges as follows: (1) 0 – 50 means having not enough attention to implement human development, (2) 51- 79 means having enough attention to implement human development, (3) 80-100 means having more than enough attention to implement human development.

To mainstream HDI, United Nation organized High Level Conference in Copenhagen in 1995. This moment published The Principles of Human Development that was signed by 117 presidents or Head of Governments. In September 2000, The 189 countries that were UN member held Millennium Conference. At this moment, the delegations agreed to adopt The Millennium Declaration. The Declaration was based on inclusive approach and it stands on the fulfillments of the human right. The members of United Nation adopted the millennium declaration, and then called The Millennium Development Goal (MDG).

Even a number of Counties targeted MDG achievement before 2015, as follows: (1) poverty elimination, (2) Basic Education for all, (3) equality and gender justice, and women empowering, (4) decreasing for baby mortality rate, (5) improving mother health, (6) prevention from HIV-AIDS, malaria and others diseases, (7) sustainable environment, (8) Friendship global networking.

Since 1990, The Indonesian IDX has ranged 107 - 111 among 177 - 182 countries. The change level of Indonesian IDX was not significant. Even in 2009, The Indonesian Government increased education budget up to 20 percents of National Budgeting. However, The Team Leader of Governance Unit UNDP i.e. Rizal Malik showed that government budget was still allocated to remunerate employees, including the increase of 20% for education budget. The Executive Director of Institute of Non-Government Forum Indonesian Development (INFID) i.e. Don K. Marut showed that the Indonesian IDX achievement was caused by bigness of foreign loan to be paid. But, The Welfare Coordinator Ministry i.e. Abu Rizal Bakrie showed that it was caused by local government that didn’t follow IDX yet (December, 17th, 2007). The cause of not following IDX was that the local government has restrictiveness of institution, budgeting, human resource, and information system.

Rabu, 07 Oktober 2009

Evaluation of the Single Window System

In the end of Augustus 2009, Local Governance and Innovation for Communities in Aceh (LOGICA) hired an independent team to evaluate The Single Window System. The team evaluated The Implementation of Single Window System in four Districts such as Aceh Besar, Aceh Jaya, Aceh Barat and Bireun. The team decided to evaluate six aspects i.e. change of value in public servant, change of local regulation, change of institution, models of supporting, scaling up, and the impact.

1. The change of value in public servant
The significant values of Single Window system are transparency and making the service near.

The models of transparency which are implemented give information about procedure, service fee for licenses. It is progressive effort of government service. Citizens as users are not doubtful and do not guess anymore about requirement, procedure, person in charge, and whether they have to pay the service fee or not. These are reforms of bureaucracy in public service and of bureaucracy characteristic.

The Single Window System is just one of government tasks especially for Sub District. As a sub system, The Single Window System is depending on another sub system and the commitment of head of Sub District Government. If some of system in Sub District is not transparent yet, then it does not guarantee that the innovation will be sustainable. To make sure that the transparency becomes steady change, The Sub District Government must be reformed. The Commitment of head Sub District Government and his staff must be strengthened. The Transparency must be widened to another part comprehensively. The Sub district Reformations can be done with installing The Single Window System to all task and authorities of Sub District.
Thus, the transparency can be implemented systematically.

From the external side, the guarantee of Sub District transparency was done through two parties, i.e. District Government and citizens as users. The District Government can monitor and evaluate. The citizens and civil society organization can be involved in user-based survey and complaint mechanism.

Making the service near

The service will be nearer if the accomplishment of licensing is finished in Sub District Office. The more services are finished, the nearer is the service to citizens. On the other hand, the authorities of Sub District which are implemented through the single window system are limited to making a letters of reference or recommendation which need accomplishment at Licenses Office or Population Administration Office. This indicates The Single Window System just improves and makes Sub District services more efficient, but doesn't cut the distance of accomplishing licensees. In other words, The Single Window System which is implemented currently is not yet significant to make service nearer.

2. Change of Local Regulation
Some regulations have been decided to make sure that the implementing of the single window system in Sub District Office is effective , such as Mayor Regulation about Delegation of Authority, Mayor Regulation about Job Description and main task in Sub District Government, Mayor Decree about Procedures of Population Administration and License etc. Those regulations have created appropriate condition to decrease indeterminacy in public service.

Related to Delegation of authority, Head of Sub District haven’t dared yet to implement the authorities which are in The Mayor Regulation. These cases happened in Aceh Jaya and Aceh Barat District. On the other hand, there are differences between the Sub Districts Government and District Government in interpreting delegation of authorities.
The last point in the change of local regulation is The Local Budget hasn’t yet become a source of finance on implementing the single window system.

3. Change of Institution
There isn’t the special of structure which is created on The District level to make sure and monitor the change of Sub District. The Implementation Team which was created on the District level was temporary structure. The team was more active in the phases of preparing and socializing.

The Sub District adjusted its own structure to the structure of Single Window System and accommodated the structures of front office and back office on public service. The Sub District also created the special officer whose job was in public service, i.e. in The Sub District at Aceh Besar and Aceh Barat District. The Sub District also made sure that the cashier worked all day along and the others worked based on the schedule. These happened in Aceh Jaya and Bireun District.

The last point of change of institution is that human resource capacity, supporting infrastructure and budget are usually regarded the cause of ineffectiveness of implementation of single window system in Sub District Office.

4. Models of supporting
The role of Head of Sub District as a leader was very significant whether the implementation of single window system was smooth or not. All Sub Districts which implemented the single window system certainly involved The Head of Sub District directly. He led it seriously.

Based on their own initiatives, the leaning process had happened in sub district which was not directly accompanied by LOGICA. The initiative was the pretension to know the implementing of single window system.

The role of LOGICA was very significant as the facilitator of change. It can be said that the implementing of single window system was not significant without the intensive involvement of LOGICA. Until now, there was not a party which could replace the role of LOGICA in District and sub District levels. LOGICA also didn’t yet make the exit strategy which would make sure that the single window system was sustainable after the involvement was finished.

5. Scaling Up

Scaling up on the Area of Implementation of Single Window System

The implementation of single window system to all sub districts was a praiseworthy commitment of District Government. It indicated the change of bureaucratic behavior and the emergence of the need of District for prima service in sub district that oriented to satisfaction and pleasure of citizens.

But the replication of the single window system to all sub districts was just a regulation. It was not yet the phase of involvement and empowerment. That was indicated by the absence of the structure which was specially created to adopt roles of LOGICA i.e. intensive involvement on process of change in Sub District.

Scaling up on the Delegation of Authority
The Delegation of Authority to Sub District consists of 4 sectors i.e. Population Administration, Licensing, Empowering Mukim and Village Government, Health and Education. The intervention which was done by LOGICA through The Single Window System had given a strong foundation to Sub District Government about implementation of Authority Delegation especially on licensing and Population Administration. Based on the experience, the implementation of authorities on health, empowering mukim and villages Government, and education were able to be developed.

6. The impact

From User side, they feel the significant difference between current service and the single window system especially on accomplishment of licenses was that the latter was easier, faster, and not doubtful.

From Sub District side, the beginning of the implementation of single window system made employees doubtful because of the decreased incomes of each employee. But, after some time, they felt the benefits consisting of clear job distribution and the effectiveness of public service. The Single Window System had decreased a burden of sub district employee. It also had created more flexible time to sub district employee because some jobs had been taken by the single window system. The single window system had restored the trust of citizens to Sub District Government.

7. Recommendation

Regulation Aspect
The accompanying of elaboration policy of authority delegation must be done to make sure which policy is implemented. More procedures had been decided so far were related to licensing and population administration. The Procedure that was related to delegation of authority i.e. developing mukim and village government, health and education must also be decided as soon as possible.

The accompanying of budget allocation in Local Budget of District Government (APBK) must be directed to the activities which were directly related to the implementing of Single Window System and authority delegation i.e. human capacity improvement, procurement of goods and service, and some activities like workshop or share of experience among employees in Sub district.

Institution Aspect
To implement the single window system and authority delegation in all of sub districts, District Government needs to create The Steering Committee and Sub District Capacity Improvement Team. The Steering Committee resembles the implementation team which had been created for the single window system. If there are needs to implement all of the authorities which are delegated to sub district, then The Steering Committee must be extended by involvement of education office, health and village government.

Sub District Capacity Improvement Team is a team work that has task to accompany, to give a technical assistance, and to improve sub district capacity in order to be capable to implement delegation of authority. The team can be placed on a Desk (like Education and Training Institution) to facilitate the finance.
The monitoring and evaluation should be done periodically to measure performance and to give suggestion on developing during the process.

Special for empowering village government, on the Sub District level, The Village Capacity Improvement Team should be created. It will accompany the village government to improve the village capacity, give technical assistant to village government in doing its own functions.

Authority delegation aspect

The accompanying of implementation of authority delegation can be done directly and level by level. The alternatives of authority delegation consist of administration and licensing accomplishment and the single window system plus. The single window system can be made the standard to implement authorities of sub district i.e. empowering mukim and village, education and health.

Rabu, 16 September 2009


Media Indonesia Edisi Senin, 7 September 2009 Rubrik Pendidikan -- CALAK EDU

DALAM kesempatan mendengarkan paparan para guru dari Sekolah Dasar Negeri Dham Ceukok dan SMPN 1 Ingin Jaya, Aceh Besar, tentang rancangan rencana anggaran pendidikan dan belanja sekolah (RAPBS), seorang peserta dengan penuh antusias melontarkan kritiknya. “Selama ini,” katanya, “RAPBS hanya disusun oleh dua orang saja, yaitu kepala sekolah dan bendahara yang ditunjuk. Tapi sekarang setelah mendapat pelatihan yang disponsori oleh Logica dari AIPRD-AusAid, saya jadi paham bahwa RAPBS merupakan tanggung jawab bersama, tanggung jawab kita semua.”

Peserta lain juga memiliki perasaan yang sama, perasaan lega, karena apa yang selama ini terjadi pada faktanya hampir tak pernah terjadi. Semua orang berhak punya usul dalam RAPBS, bukan
hanya guru dan kepala sekolah, melainkan juga orang tua yang diwakili oleh komite sekolah. Prakarsa yang dilakukan teman-teman Logica di Aceh Besar, dengan motor utamanya seorang santri asal Magelang bernama Ahmad Rofik, mampu membuat seluruh sivitas akademika di dua sekolah tersebut memiliki harapan baru.

Edu menambahkan bahwa RAPBS merupakan ‘jantung’ dari sekolah. Jika detaknya didukung oleh ‘ginjal, paru, empedu, usus, dan aliran darah yang sehat’, tubuh juga pasti akan sehat. Begitu juga sekolah, jika proses penyusunan RAPBS didukung, diketahui, dan disetujui secara bersama oleh seluruh guru, masyarakat, dinas pendidikan, dan tokoh masyarakat, sekolah tersebut pastilah sehat adanya. Paling mudah untuk mengaudit dan mengevaluasi sebuah sekolah. Lihatlah bagaimana proses sivitas akademika sekolah dalam menyusun RAPBS mereka. Karena di banyak sekolah, RAPBS hanya merupakan tumpukan program pembelian barang, pembayaran honor, pemberian uang transpor, tanpa ada strategi yang jitu tentang bagaimana seharusnya RAPBS direncanakan, disusun, dikelola, dan dikerjakan.

Pada proses lokakarya tentang perencanaan pendidikan berbasis sekolah yang dibiayai oleh Logica di Bireuen beberapa waktu lalu, para fasilitator mampu menggugah komunitas sekolah untuk peduli pada setiap rencana yang akan mereka tetapkan dalam RAPBS. Orientasi mereka ditumbuhkan agar terfokus pada visi dan misi yang menjadi komitmen komunitas sekolah. Selain itu, RAPBS juga harus mengacu dan berorientasi pada peningkatan mutu pendidikan di sekolah, mencakup proses belajar-mengajar dan peningkatan kemampuan teknis dan metodologis guru dalam mengembangkan bahan ajar.

Penting bagi komunitas sekolah untuk menumbuhkan kemampuan dalam melakukan school mapping, belajar mengidentifikasi kesenjangan yang menjadi penghambat proses belajar-mengajar, menemukan solusi, serta menganalisis solusi tersebut menjadi sebuah program tindakan yang berorientasi pada standar mutu pelayanan pendidikan. Jika proses ini dijalankan oleh setiap sekolah, dapat dipastikan dunia pendidikan kita akan jauh lebih maju, jauh melampaui batas, bahkan dari target kinerja yang ditetapkan pemerintah.

Menyusun RAPBS yang sehat, tak ada kata lain, harus melibatkan masyarakat sekitar sekolah atau komite sekolah. Banyak sekali terjadi komite sekolah hanya merupakan ‘tukang stempel’ kepala sekolah dalam melegitimasi seluruh kegiatan sekolah yang berbasis anggaran. Hampir tak ada program dari kementerian pendidikan yang berorientasi pada pemberdayaan masyarakat, terutama program-program pelatihan untuk komite sekolah. Bahkan ketika dilaksanakan lokakarya komite sekolah, secara serempak seluruh anggota komite sekolah mengatakan bahwa mereka selama ini tak pernah tahu tentang peran, fungsi, dan tugas pokok komite sekolah.

Sebagai lembaga yang bertanggung jawab dalam meningkatkan peran serta masyarakat pada penyelenggaraan pendidikan di sekolah, komite sekolah harus dapat menciptakan kondisi sekolah yang transparan, akuntabel, dan demokratis dalam penyelenggaraan dan pelayanan pendidikan yang bermutu. Komite sekolah juga memiliki fungsi sebagai pemberi pertimbangan (advisory agency), pendukung (supporting agency), pengontrol (controlling agency), dan mediator. Komite sekolah merupakan kekuatan nyata yang tak pernah diberdayakan sekaligus diikutsertakan dalam menyusun RAPBS.

Margaret Med pernah bilang, bahwa “never doubts that a small group of thoughtful, committed people can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.” Karena itu sudah saatnya pemerintah melakukan pemberdayaan terhadap seluruh komite sekolah, sekaligus melibatkan mereka dalam setiap kegiatan penyusunan RAPBS. Jika kontrol dari masyarakat efektif ketika penyusunan RAPBS dilakukan, dapat dipastikan bahwa sekolah akan lebih transparan dan akuntabel.

Ahmad Baedowi

Senin, 25 Mei 2009

Model Jaringan Adminduk On Line di Aceh Besar

digambar oleh: Ridahamilwan LOGICA

Jumat, 13 Maret 2009

Seberapa Besar Pemkab Aceh Besar Menyejahterakan Warga dalam Pelayanan KTP On Line?

Adalah Afriazal, petugas verifikasi KTP On Line Loket Ingin Jaya yang berasal dari staf kecamatan ingin jaya. Dia menuturkan berapa besar uang masyarakat yang bisa dihemat dengan KTP On Line, sebagai berikut:
a. Biaya perjalan Lambaro – Jantho PP : 20.000,--
b. Makan Siang : 10.000,--
c. Kehilangan hasil Kerja seharai : 50.000,-- (standara buruh di Lambaro @ Rp 50.000,-- UMR NAD Rp. 1.200.000). Warga akan kehilangan kesempatan memperoleh Rp. 80.000 ketika megurus KTP di Kota Jantho.

Dengan pelayanan di Ingin jaya yang maksimal 2 jam, bahkan bisa dalam waktu 10-15 menit /orang, maka warga masih bisa bekerja. padahal setiap hari Loket Pelayanan KTP Ingin Jaya dapat melayani 30 orang.

Maka dapat dihitung, berapa besar masyarakat dapat menyimpan pengeluarannya untuk pengurusan KTP ini, yaitu:
= Rp 80.000 X 30 warga X = Rp 2.400.000 (Dua Juta Empat Ratus Ribu Rupiah), untuk sehari
= Rp 80.000 X 30 warga X 22 hari (dalam sebulan) = Rp 52.800.000 (Lima Puluh Dua Juta Delapan Ratus Ribu Rupiah), untuk sebulan
= Rp 80.000 X 30 warga X 22 hari (dalam sebulan) x 12 bulan = Rp 633.600.000 (Enam Ratus Tiga Puluh Tiga Juta Enam Ratus Ribu Rupiah), untuk setahun.

Itu pada titik pelayanan di Ingin Jaya. Bagaimana dengan titik pelayanan di Peukan Bada yang bisa memperpendek jarak dari Lhoong ke Kota Jantho (4 jam perjalan = 8 jam PP)?

Senin, 09 Maret 2009

Pelimpahan Kewenangan (Kepada Camat) Untuk Kesejahteraan Masyarakat

Perubahan kedudukan kecamatan sejak diberlakukannya kebijakan otonomi daerah melalui pemberlakuan Undang-Undang No. 22 Tahun 1999 yang kemudian diperbarui dengan Undang-Undang No. 32 Tahun 2004 Tentang Pemerintahan Daerah --Di Aceh, dipayungi dengan Undang-Undang No. 11 Tahun 2006 Tentang Pemerintahan Aceh -- membawa dampak berubahnya kedudukan kecamatan.

Kecamatan berubah dari Perangkat Kewilayahan yang menyelenggarakan fungsi-fungsi dekonsentrasi dan tugas pembantuan, menjadi Perangkat Daerah Otonom, yang membawa dampak pada kewenangan yang dijalankan oleh camat. Camat selain menerima kewenangan atributif yang melekat dalam jabatannya, juga memperoleh kewenangan delegatif dari pejabat atasannya (Bupati/Walikota).
Pelimpahan adalah proses menyerahkan sebagian wewenang dari pejabat kepada pejabat untuk melaksanakan sebagian urusan. Mengapa pelimpahan kewenangan ini perlu dilakukan? Dengan adanya pelimpahan kewenangan, maka camat dapat memiliki “ruang gerak” yang lebih luas untuk melakukan berbagai upaya termasuk inovasi dalam penyelenggaraan pemerintahan terutama pelayanan kepada masyarakat.

Pelimpahan wewenang ini sebenarnya merupakan upaya untuk optimalisasi peran dan fungsi Kecamatan dalam rangka meningkatkan pelayanan kepada masyarakat. Hasil yang diharapkan adalah terealisasikannya Kecamatan sebagai pusat pelayanan masyarakat yang mudah, murah, cepat dan berkualitas.

Dalam skema pelimpahan ini, kecamatan sebagai SKPD dan koordinator wilayah berfungsi mendukung pencapaian Standar Pelayanan Minimal (SPM) menuju peningkatan kesejahteraan masyarakat. Kecamatan juga harus bekerjasama dengan unit-unit pemerintahan di lingkup kecamatan (seperti Puskesmas, Cabang Dinas, UPTD, Sekolah, para penyuluh). Kejasama sinergi ini dimaksudkan agar kemampuan yang ada dapat diakumulasi dalam rangka mendukung Pemerintah Kabupaten.Kota dalam mencapai SPM/Target Kinerja yang ditetapkan oleh Bupati.

Dalam kerangka itulah maka kecamatan mendapatkan sejumlah pelimpahan kewenangan seperiti bidang: kesehatan, pendidikan dasar,perizinan, pembinaan mukim dan gampong (desa), serta perpajakan. Adapun aspek yang dilimpahkan pada dasarnya berfungsi untuk mengefektifkan koordinasi. Oleh karena itu camat mendapatkan pelimpahan kewenangan untuk: (a) fasilitasi, perencanaan dan penganggaran, (b)koordinasi dan fasilitasi penyelenggaraan kegiatan dan monitoring pelaksanaan kegiatan, (c) pengawasasn kegaiatan yang dilakukan UPTD tingkat kecamatn, (d) Fasilitasi Pengaduan Masyarakat, dan (e) Evaluasi Kinerja Bidang yang dilimpahkan. Untuk memastikan efektifitas pelimpahan maka kecamatan bersama SKPD Kabupaten/Kota mendapatkan Target Kinerja.

Adapun mekanisme kerja Tartget Kinerja dapat divisualisasikan pada bagan di atas.